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national survey found triclosan in the urine of the majority of people tested (Calafat et al. Other studies have measured triclosan in the urine of pregnant women (Meeker et al. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 73–2979, PMID: 15273108, 10.1128/AAC.48.8.2973-2979.2004. Sci Total Environ 32–167, PMID: 18207219, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.20. Snail bioaccumulation of triclocarban, triclosan, and methyltriclosan in a North Texas, USA, stream affected by wastewater treatment plant runoff. Disruption of blastocyst implantation by triclosan in mice: Impacts of repeated and acute doses and combination with bisphenol-A. J Appl Toxicol 5–311, PMID: 21462230, 10.1002/jat.1660. Environ Toxicol Chem 8–976, PMID: 25546022, 10.1002/etc.2854. Food Chem Toxicol 5–129, PMID: 17011099, 10.1016/20. Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2016/110 of 27 January 2016 not Approving Triclosan as an Existing Active Substance for Use in Biocidal Products for Product-type 1. Environ Health Perspect 161–1268, PMID: 26908126, 10.1289/ehp.1409637. J Photochem Photobiol A Chem 1–66, PMID: 16520937, 10.1016/S1010-6030(03)00103-5. Sci Total Environ 402–2114, PMID: 19054547, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.20. Environ Int 7–562, PMID: 20452023, 10.1016/j.envint.20. Environ Sci Technol 797–10804, PMID: 22989227, 10.1021/es3028378. MBio 5:e01015–13, PMID: 24713325, 10.1128/m Bio.01015-13. Tamura I, Kagota K, Yasuda Y, Yoneda S, Morita J, Nakada N, et al. Ecotoxicity and screening level ecotoxicological risk assessment of five antimicrobial agents: Triclosan, triclocarban, resorcinol, phenoxyethanol and -thymol. Triclosan promotes epicutaneous sensitization to peanut in mice. Toxicol Sci 1–64, PMID: 18940961, 10.1093/toxsci/kfn225.
Many of those 19 chemicals have been in widespread use for decades, and many are still allowed in a number of other over-the-counter personal care products as well as in consumer and building products. The Green Science Policy Institute [a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization] received funding from New York Community Trust that was used to support the contributions of A. A large amount of triclosan and triclocarban is therefore discharged directly to conventional wastewater treatment plants (Bester 2005; Halden and Paull 2005).
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned nineteen antimicrobial ingredients, including triclosan and triclocarban, in over-the-counter consumer antiseptic wash products based on insufficient evidence demonstrating their safety for long-term daily use and that they reduce the spread of illness and infection. received a grant from the National Science Foundation [CBET 0,967,163 (Using triclosan and polyhalogenated dibenzo--dioxins to elucidate the importance of natural and anthropogenic sources of OH-PBDEs in fresh and estuarine waters)] that ended in 2014. 2013) and because the antibacterial ingredient is highly diluted during the washing process. Triclosan and triclocarban used in consumer products end up in the environment (Heidler and Halden 2009) and have been detected in a wide variety of matrices worldwide (Halden and Paull 2005; Singer et al. Triclosan and triclocarban are commonly used in products intended for washing [e.g., an estimated 96% of triclosan is used in products that are intentionally disposed of down the drain, such as soaps and detergents (Reiss et al. These substances are also used in products that may be frequently washed (e.g., textiles, food contact materials, plastic surfaces). sewage sludge found triclosan and triclocarban at high levels, on average in the tens of milligrams per kilogram dry weight [Halden 2014; U.
The high persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of these dioxins and furans in the environment is well-established (Sinkkonen and Paasivirta 2000; Van den Berg et al. Furthermore, triclosan undergoes conversion to 2,8-dibenzodichloro--dioxin (2,8-DCDD) in water when exposed to natural sunlight (Aranami and Readman 2007; Latch et al. EPA 2001) that is also recognized by the State of California as a developmental toxicant [State of California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal EPA) 2017]. Phytoaccumulation of triclosan and triclocarban has been observed in certain vegetable crops grown in biosolids-amended soils. One study calculated a terminal plasma half-life of 21h for triclosan (Sandborgh-Englund et al. Blood-borne triclosan and triclocarban can cross the placenta, and triclosan and its metabolites have been detected in umbilical cord blood at birth (Allmyr et al. Triclosan, triclocarban, and their metabolites have also been detected in human milk samples (Adolfsson-Erici et al. Allergy Eur J Allergy Clin Immunol –91, PMID: 23146048, 10.1111/all.12058. Water Res 91–3896, PMID: 12909107, 10.1016/S0043-1354(03)00335-X. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 0–572, PMID: 19822703, 10.1128/AAC.00615-09. Environ Toxicol Chem 83–2492, PMID: 12389930, 10.1002/etc.5620211130. Formation of chloroform and chlorinated organics by free-chlorine-mediated oxidation of triclosan. Development and use of polyethylene passive samplers to detect triclosans and alkylphenols in an urban estuary. Environ Sci Technol 09–3115, PMID: 21381656, 10.1021/es103650m.
In biosolids-amended soils, triclocarban and triclosan can persist for extended periods of time while exhibiting very slow or no measurable degradation (Langdon et al. 2008; International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) 2012]. 2017), raising concerns about prenatal exposure to the developing fetus. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/54806478e4b0dc44e1698e88/t/5488541fe4b03c0a9b8ee09b/1418220575693/Ntl Biosolids Report-20July07[accessed 17 June 2016]. Bertelsen RJ, Longnecker MP, Løvik M, Calafat AM, Carlsen KH, London SJ, et al. Triclosan exposure and allergic sensitization in Norwegian children. Triclosan in a sewage treatment process – Balances and monitoring data. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 49:9–17, PMID: 15959704, 10.1007/s00244-004-0155-4. Environ Toxicol Chem 55–2563, PMID: 19908930, 0730-7268/09. Chemosphere 38–1243, PMID: 21652055, 10.1016/j.chemosphere.20. Queckenberg C, Meins J, Wachall B, Doroshyenko O, Tomalik-Scharte D, Bastian B, et al. Absorption, pharmacokinetics, and safety of triclosan after dermal administration. An ecological risk assessment for triclosan in lotic systems following discharge from wastewater treatment plants in the United States. https://ec.europa.eu/health/sites/health/files/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_023[accessed 21 June 2016]. Aquat Toxicol 18–454, PMID: 21872556, 10.1016/j.aquatox.20. Schebb NH, Inceoglu B, Ahn KC, Morisseau C, Gee SJ, Hammock BD. Investigation of human exposure to triclocarban after showering and preliminary evaluation of its biological effects.
In 2007, an estimated 85% of the total volume of triclosan in the EU was used in personal care and cosmetic products (SCCS 2010). According to the FDA, which is responsible for regulation of foods, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, and similar products, there is no evidence that antibacterial soaps are more effective than nonantibacterial soap and water (FDA 2016). Through land application of biosolids, antimicrobials can also end up in livestock feed and in crops destined for human consumption (Aryal and Reinhold 2011; Prosser et al. Persisting fractions of triclosan and triclocarban that do not partition into the sludge are discharged to surface waters via effluent, where they can reach levels of thousands of nanograms per liter (Bester 2005; Buth et al.
In 1998, the worldwide annual production of triclosan was approximately 1,500 tons, with a majority produced in Europe (350 tons) and the United States (450 tons) (Dhillon et al. In 2006, an estimated 450 tons of triclosan was used within the European Union (EU) [Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) 2010]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee concluded, “No evidence is available to suggest that use of [antimicrobial-impregnated articles and consumer items bearing antimicrobial labeling] will make consumers and patients healthier or prevent disease” (CDC 2003). The FDA first indicated in a 1974 Tentative Final Monograph that there was insufficient evidence to show that triclosan was effective and safe for long-term use (Halden 2014). During wastewater treatment, these chemicals partition preferentially into sewage sludge (Bester 2003, 2005; Heidler et al. The FDA’s decades-long path to issuing a final rule, and the narrow scope of the September 2016 Final Rule (FDA 2016), indicate that existing regulatory practices are not sufficient to protect human and ecosystem health from adverse impacts of antimicrobial chemicals. As scientists, medical doctors, and public health professionals, we are concerned about the continued widespread use of the chlorinated antimicrobials triclosan and triclocarban for the following reasons: We therefore call on the international community to limit the production and use of triclosan and triclocarban and to question the use of other antimicrobials. We urge scientists, governments, chemical and product manufacturers, purchasing organizations, retailers, and consumers to take the actions recommended below. H.’s contribution to this project was supported in part by grant number R01ES020889 and its supplements from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and by grant number LTR 05/01/12 from the Virginia G. Triclosan and triclocarban are not well regulated and may be found in 2,000 consumer and building products (Halden 2014). Triclosan has been detected in both raw and finished drinking water (Loraine and Pettigrove 2006), in ocean water (Xie et al.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating